ULTANE® (sevoflurane) is indicated for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adult and pediatric patients for inpatient and outpatient surgery. ULTANE should be administered only by persons trained in the administration of general anesthesia. Facilities for maintenance of a patent airway, artificial ventilation, oxygen enrichment, and circulatory resuscitation must be immediately available. Since level of anesthesia may be altered rapidly, only vaporizers producing predictable concentrations of ULTANE should be used.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION2
- ULTANE can cause malignant hyperthermia. Postmarketing reports of malignant hyperthermia, some of which have been fatal, have occurred. ULTANE should not be used in patients with known sensitivity to sevoflurane or to other halogenated agents, or in patients with known or suspected susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia.
- Findings taken from patient and animal studies suggest that there is a potential for renal injury when ULTANE is used at low flow rates, which is presumed due to Compound A. The level of Compound A exposure at which clinical nephrotoxicity might be expected to occur has not been established. To minimize exposure to Compound A, ULTANE exposure should not exceed 2 MAC-hours at flow rates of 1 to <2 L/min. Fresh gas flow rates <1 L/min are not recommended.
- Because clinical experience in administering ULTANE to patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine >1.5 mg/dL) is limited, its safety in these patients has not been established.
- ULTANE may be associated with glycosuria and proteinuria when used for long procedures at low flow rates.
- KOH containing CO2 absorbents are not recommended for use with ULTANE. An exothermic reaction occurs when ULTANE is exposed to CO2 absorbents. This reaction is increased when the absorbent becomes desiccated. Rare cases of extreme heat, smoke, and/or spontaneous fire have been reported during ULTANE use in conjunction with the use of desiccated CO2 absorbent, specifically those containing potassium hydroxide (e.g., Baralyme).
- Reports of QT prolongation, associated with torsade de pointes (in exceptional cases, fatal), have been received. Caution should be exercised when administering ULTANE to susceptible patients (e.g. patients with congenital Long QT Syndrome or patients taking drugs that can prolong the QT interval).
- Rare increases in serum potassium resulting in cardiac arrhythmias and death have been noted in pediatric patients during the postoperative period following the use of inhaled anesthetic agents. Contributing risk factors appear to be latent or overt neuromuscular disease, particularly Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Concomitant use of succinylcholine has been associated with most, but not all, of these cases. Early, aggressive intervention to treat both hyperkalemia and resistant arrhythmias, and subsequent evaluation for latent neuromuscular disease, is recommended.
- Studies conducted in young animals and children suggest repeated or prolonged use of general anesthetic or sedation drugs in the third trimester of gestation through the first three years of age may result in adverse cognitive or behavioral effects on their developing brains. The studies in children have substantial limitations, and it is not clear if the observed effects are due to the anesthetic/sedation drug administration or other factors, such as the surgery or underlying illness. Anesthetic and sedation drugs are a necessary part of the care of children when needed, and no specific medications have been shown to be safer than any other. Decisions regarding the timing of any elective procedures requiring anesthesia should take into consideration the benefits of the procedure weighed against the potential risks.
- Due to ULTANE’s insolubility in blood, hemodynamic changes may occur more rapidly than with other volatile anesthetics. Excessive decreases in blood pressure or respiratory depression may be related to depth of anesthesia and may be corrected by decreasing the inspired concentration of ULTANE.
- Seizures have been reported in association with ULTANE use, the majority of which have occurred in children and young adults, most of whom had no predisposing risk factors. Clinical judgment should be exercised when using ULTANE in patients who may be at risk for seizures.
- Drug interactions: Benzodiazepines and opioids would be expected to decrease the MAC of ULTANE. The anesthetic requirement for ULTANE is decreased when administered in combination with nitrous oxide. ULTANE increases both the intensity and duration of neuromuscular blockade induced by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants.
- Very rare cases of mild, moderate, and severe postoperative hepatic dysfunction or hepatitis with or without jaundice have been reported from postmarketing experiences. In addition, rare postmarketing reports of hepatic failure and hepatic necrosis have been associated with the use of ULTANE. Clinical judgment should be used in patients with underlying hepatic conditions or who are under treatment with drugs known to cause hepatic dysfunction. It has been reported that previous exposure to halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetics may increase the potential for hepatic injury.
- Adverse events reported by ≥5% of the surgical patients receiving ULTANE during clinical trials during induction included: bradycardia, tachycardia, agitation, laryngospasm, airway obstruction, breathholding, and increased cough; during maintenance and emergence: shivering, hypotension, bradycardia, somnolence, agitation, nausea, vomiting, and increased cough were reported.